REFERENCE LIBRARY

REFERENCE LIBRARY

[EZ-Western serise] NecroX-5 ameliorates inflammation by skewing macrophages to the M2 phenotype

2020.01.07 16:11 2,877 0

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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the role of NecroX-5, a powerful anti-inflammatory agent, on the functional plasticity of macrophages and the possible underlying mechanism using RAW264.7 cells, thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice, and a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The change in cell morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The expression of CD206, arginase (Arg)-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were examined by western blotting. The production of inflammatory cytokines was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and statistical comparisons were made. The results showed that treatment of RAW264.7 cells with NecroX-5 caused an elongated shape in comparison to non-treated cells. The expression levels of macrophage mannose receptor CD206 and Arg-1, specific markers of M2 cells, were significantly upregulated by NecroX-5 treatment, while those of iNOS (M1 macrophages) was decreased. In addition, NecroX-5 significantly reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 secretion in the supernatant was significantly enhanced. Treatment with NecroX-5 considerably ameliorated the progression of DSS-induced colitis and significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that NecroX-5 might dampen inflammation by switching the M1 phenotype to the M2 phenotype due to IL-4 and IL-13 induction.

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